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    • 水泵密封的原理及要求
    • 本站編輯:振欣透平機械有限公司(原杭州振興工業泵制造有限公司)發布日期:2018-01-18 10:17 瀏覽次數:pubd
    pubd

    1填料密封的原理

    The principle of 1 packing seal

    在機械行業中填料密封主要用作動密封,常用作離心泵、壓縮機、真空泵、攪拌機的轉軸密封。填料裝入填料腔以后,經壓蓋螺絲對它作軸向壓縮,當軸與填料有相對運動時,由于填料的塑性,使它產生徑向力,并與軸緊密接觸。與此同時,填料中浸漬的潤滑劑被擠出,在接觸面之間形成油膜。由于接觸狀態并不是特別均勻的,接觸部位便出現“邊界潤滑”狀態,稱為“軸承效應”;而未接觸的凹部形成小油槽,有較厚的油膜,接觸部位與非接觸部位組成一道不規則的迷宮,起阻止液流泄漏的作用,此稱“迷宮效應”。這就是填料密封的機理。良好的密封在于維持“軸承效應”和“迷宮效應”。也就是說,要保持良好的潤滑和適當的壓緊。若潤滑不良,或壓得過緊都會使油膜中斷,造成填料與軸之間出現干摩擦,比較后導致燒軸和出現嚴重磨損。因此,我們需要經常對填料的壓緊程度進行調節,使填料中的潤滑劑在運行一段時間而有所流失之后,再擠出一些潤滑劑,同時補償填料因體積變化所造成的壓緊力松弛。當然這樣經常擠壓填料,比較后將使浸漬劑枯竭,所以定期更換填料是必要的。此外,為了維持液膜和帶走摩擦熱,有意讓填料處有少量泄漏也是必要的。

    In the machinery industry, packing seals are mainly used as dynamic seals, often used as centrifugal pumps, compressors, vacuum pumps, and rotating shaft seals of agitator. Packing into the packing cavity after the gland screws on it when the axial compression, and the filler has the relative motion, because the plastic filler to produce a radial force, and close contact with the shaft. At the same time, the lubricant impregnated in the filler is squeezed out and the oil film is formed between the contact surfaces.  Because the contact state is not uniform, the contact parts will appear the boundary lubrication condition, known as the "bearing effect"; the concave without contact to form a small oil tank, oil film thickness, contact and non-contact parts of an irregular maze, preventing the liquid leakage flow this effect, called "labyrinth effect". This is the mechanism of packing seal. Good seal is to maintain "bearing effect" and "labyrinth effect". That is to say, it is necessary to maintain good lubrication and appropriate pressure. If the lubrication is bad, or the pressure is too tight, the oil film will be interrupted, causing dry friction between the packing and the shaft, and finally causing the burning shaft and serious wear. Therefore, we need to adjust the packing degree of the packing regularly, so that the lubricant in the filler will run away for a period of time, and then squeeze out some lubricants, and compensate for the tightening force caused by the volume change of the filler. Of course, the packing is often squeezed, and the impregnating agent will be exhausted at the end, so it is necessary to replace the packing regularly. In addition, in order to maintain the liquid film and take away the friction heat, it is also necessary to have a small amount of leakage at the packing.

    2.2填料密封在工業泵使用中存在的問題

    Problems in the use of 2.2 packing seal in the use of industrial pumps

    工業泵的軸封一般采用具有耐磨性、耐熱性、柔軟性好、強度高等優點,我們在用盤根填料,發現其具以下個缺點:①填料表面粗糙、摩擦系數大、有滲漏現象,另外使用久了浸入的潤滑劑容易流失。②新修好的設備,開始運行時軸封狀況良好,但用不了多久,泄漏量便不斷增加,調整壓蓋和更換填料的工作也逐漸頻繁,運轉不到一個周期,軸套就已磨損成花瓶狀,嚴重時還會出現軸套磨斷,并且水封環后面更換不到的盤根填料均已腐爛,無法起到密封作用。③填料與軸直接接觸,且相對轉動,造成軸與軸套的磨損,所以必須定期或不定期更換軸套。④為了使盤根與軸或軸套間產生的摩擦熱及時散掉,盤根密封必須保持一定量的泄漏,而且不易控制。⑤盤根與軸或軸套間的摩擦,造成電機有效功率降低,消耗電能。

    The industrial pump generally adopts abrasion resistance, heat resistance, good flexibility, high strength, we found that the packing in the packing, has the following disadvantages: the filler surface roughness, friction coefficient, leakage, and long time immersed in the lubricant used to drain. The new fixed equipment running in good condition when the shaft seal, but before long, the leakage will increase, the adjustment and replacement of packing gland work gradually frequently, running to a cycle, Bush had been worn into the vase shape, there will be serious wear sleeve off, and the back seal ring is not changed the packing is rotten, can not play a role in sealing. (3) the direct contact between the packing and the shaft, and the relative rotation, causes the wear of the shaft and the shaft sleeve, so it is necessary to replace the shafts regularly or unregularly. (4) in order to make the friction heat produced by the disc root and the shaft or shaft in time dissipate, the seal must keep a certain amount of leakage, and it is not easy to control. The friction between the disc root and the shaft or shaft sleeve causes the effective power of the motor to be reduced and the electric energy is consumed.

    2.3機械密封的原理

    2.3 principle of mechanical seal

    機械密封又叫端面密封,它是一種旋轉機械的軸封裝置,指由至少一對垂直于旋轉軸線的的端面在液體壓力和補償機構彈力(或磁力)的作用以及輔助密封的配合下保持貼合并相對滑動而構成的防止流體泄漏的裝置。它的主要功用將易泄漏的軸向密封改變為較難泄漏的端面密封。它廣泛應用于泵、釜、壓縮機及其類似設備的旋轉軸的密封。機械密封通常由動環、靜環、壓緊元件和密封元件組成。其中動環隨泵軸一起旋轉,動環和靜環緊密貼合組成密封面,以防止介質泄漏。動環靠密封室中液體的壓力使其端面壓緊在靜環端面上,并在兩環端面上產生適當的比壓和保持一層極薄的液體膜而達到密封的目的。壓緊元件產生壓力,可使泵在不運轉狀態下,也保持端面貼合,保證密封介質不外漏,并防止雜質進入密封端面。密封元件起密封動環與軸的間隙、靜環與壓蓋的間隙的作用,同時彈性元件對泵的振動、沖擊起緩沖作用。機械密封在實際運行中是與泵的其它零部件一起組合起來運行的,機械密封的正常運行與它的自身性能、外部條件都有很大的關系。但是我們要保證自身的零件性能、輔助密封裝置和安裝的技術要求,使機械密封發揮它應有的作用。

    The mechanical seal is also called the seal, it is the seal device of a rotating machine, which consists of a pair of end faces perpendicular to the axis of rotation in the liquid pressure and the elasticity of compensation organizations (or magnetic) device and the role of the coordination of auxiliary seals to keep up with the relative sliding to prevent fluid leakage. Its main function changes the leakage of the axial seal to the face seal which is difficult to leak. It is widely used in the seal of the rotating shaft of the pump, the kettle, the compressor and the similar equipment. Mechanical seals are usually made up of a moving ring, a static ring, a compacting element and a sealing element. The movable ring is rotated with the pump shaft, and the dynamic ring and the static ring close tightly together to make up the sealing surface to prevent the leakage of the medium. The moving ring depends on the pressure of the liquid in the sealing chamber to compress the end surface on the static ring end surface, and generate an appropriate pressure on the two ring face and maintain a thin liquid film to achieve the purpose of sealing.  The pressure is generated by the pressing element, so that the pump can also keep the end face fit under the condition of no operation, ensuring that the sealing medium is not leaking, and prevents impurities from entering the sealing face. The sealing element plays the role of sealing the gap between the ring and the shaft, the gap between the static ring and the cap, and the elastic element cushioning the vibration and impact of the pump. Mechanical seals are combined with other components of the pump in actual operation. The normal operation of mechanical seals is closely related to their own performance and external conditions. But we must first guarantee the performance of its own parts, the auxiliary sealing device and the technical requirements of the installation, so that the mechanical seal should play its due role.

    2.4機械密封在工業泵使用中存在的問題

    2.4 problems in the use of mechanical seals in the use of industrial pumps

    機械密封的零件的故障旋轉設備在運行當中,密封端面經常會出現磨損、熱裂、變形、破損等情況,彈簧用久了也會松弛、斷裂和腐蝕。輔助密封圈也會出現裂口、扭曲和變形、破裂等情況。

    Mechanical seal parts failure rotating equipment in operation, often face wear, hot cracking, deformation, damage and other conditions. Spring for a long time will also relax, fracture and corrosion. The auxiliary sealing ring also appears crack, distortion and deformation, rupture and so on.


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